Dunedin Plumbing involves installing and repairing pipes to convey a facility’s water, gas, and waste. It is a trade that requires extensive knowledge of local plumbing codes, regulations, and standards.
Many online trade schools offer programs ideal for entry-level plumbers. These courses provide students with a comprehensive learning environment that includes textbooks, open-book exams, and academic tutoring.
The water supply is the system of pipes that deliver fresh drinking water to homes, offices, and other buildings. It is one of the vital lifeline systems essential to human civilization, along with electric power, natural gas and liquid fuels, telecommunications, and transportation.
In many countries, the water supply is operated by a public utility. The utility collects fees from end-users for the water service and pays for the pipes and other infrastructure maintenance. Privately owned water supplies may also be operated by individuals or groups.
A water supply system consists of a network of pipes that carries fresh water from the water source to the end-users, typically at an elevated pressure level. It includes the intake, water purification facilities, water storage tanks, and the pipe network itself. A water network is typically designed with a redundant grid-like topology to ensure reliable connections between the nodes. The network may be augmented with a series of cisterns to provide additional water storage capacity and prevent localized water shortages in case of emergency.
The raw water can be collected from surface sources (such as lakes or rivers) or groundwater sources such as water wells that draw from underground aquifers. It is then transferred to the water purification facility using uncovered ground-level aqueducts, covered tunnels or underground water pipes. The water is then distributed to the network of consumers by means of a water distribution system.
At the consumer end, there is a water meter that records how much water is used and the main shut-off valve for the household plumbing is located close by. In the event of an emergency, it is important to know where this valve is and how to operate it.
The supply lines don’t just bring fresh water to the toilets and showers, but also to every hot water tap in the house and even outdoor faucets for gardening and washing the car. For this reason, it is important to understand how the supply line works so that you can spot problems, accurately describe them to contractors over the phone and competently handle emergencies and other issues.
Drainage is the piping that removes used water from a building. It takes sewage and rainwater and conveys it to the sewer system or septic tank. It does this without contaminating clean water supplies or emitting harmful gases. It is important for plumbers to have knowledge of drainage systems in addition to supplying water.
The piping for drainage systems can be constructed from clay, concrete or plastic. They can be open or closed, passive or active. Passive drains rely on gravity, body movement, pressure differentials or overflow to move fluid or gas; active drains use intermittent or continuous negative pressure to pull fluid or gas from a wound or cavity.
Both systems have many components that are connected to form the drainage network. They have an upper, or collection, end that diverts surface and groundwater away from the building, and a lower, or disposal, end where the water is carried to the sewer.
Surface drainage systems include ditches and buried pipe drains. These remove excess water from the surface of land and are useful in areas where soil is prone to flooding. They can also be effective in reducing erosion and sedimentation caused by stormwater runoff.
Subsurface drainage systems remove excess water from the soil’s rootzone. This can help prevent tree and plant rot by limiting the amount of water that stays in the soil. They are achieved by deep open drains or buried pipe drains. Open drains require large tracts of land and restrict the use of machinery. Pipe drains can be more cost effective but require frequent maintenance to keep clogs from occurring.
The piping that drains the used water is usually designed to catch debris and sediment before it reaches the sewer system. This is called channel drainage. It has a grating (often made of polymer, steel or cast iron) that covers the opening. This grating can have multiple slots (slot drains) or a single slot, which is typically wider than the opening of the drain pipe and helps to reduce the likelihood of clogs. It can also be used to intercept sand and gravel before it enters the pipes.
Ventilation isn’t just for air—it’s also critical to your plumbing system. Without proper ventilation, wastewater can’t leave your home’s drains efficiently and harmful sewer gases can enter your living space.
Plumbing vents are one of the most overlooked components of your home’s plumbing system. They’re important to keep your plumbing working efficiently, but many people don’t know what they are or how they work. Here’s what you need to know about plumbing vents.
A plumbing vent is a pipe that connects to your home’s drainage system and helps it balance its pressure by bringing in fresh air. This fresh air prevents negative pressure from developing in your plumbing system and keeps the crucial water seal in your p-trap intact, which blocks unwanted sewer gas from entering your home through your drains.
The most common type of plumbing vent is a vertical pipe that extends out through your roof to open air. A home may have one or several of these vents, depending on its size and layout. Other plumbing venting options include an individual vent, a re-vent pipe or an auxiliary vent. An individual vent is a single pipe that connects to the trap of a specific fixture, such as a bathtub. It can then either terminate outdoors to open air all by itself, or (more commonly) connect to a vent stack that other fixtures can join.
Re-vent pipes, sometimes called auxiliary vents, are a type of vertical vent that’s attached to the drain line near specific plumbing fixtures, such as sinks or lavatories. Auxiliary vents can then run up and over to join the main vent or to a vent stack. The IPC permits a maximum of two fixture drains to share the same re-vent pipe.
If you suspect your plumbing vent is blocked, there are some telltale signs to look out for. If you’ve noticed that your bathtub or sink isn’t draining as it should, this could be a sign of a blocked vent. Potent smells, such as rotten eggs or sewage, can also indicate that your P-trap has been emptied of its vital water seal by negative pressure in the plumbing system. Gurgling sounds from your plumbing can also be a sign of a blocked vent. If this is the case, it’s important to consult a plumber to properly clear the blockage and avoid further damage.